Consuming alcoholic beverages results in the generation of free radicals. People who drink a lot of alcohol often suffer because of massive free radical-induced cellular damage. Alcohol-induced free radical assault can wreak short term havoc throughout the body, and these same damaging free radicals are associated with accelerated aging. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) have been associated with acute ethanol-induced liver damage. A study published in the journal Artery confirmed a specific toxic metabolite of alcohol (acetaldehyde) and identified an antidote (N-acetyl-L-cysteine): "All known pathways of ethanol metabolism result in the production of acetaldehyde, a highly reactive compound. N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC), an analogue of the dietary amino acid cysteine, binds acetaldehyde, thus blocking its damaging effect on physiological proteins.